Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic illness characterized by excessive BSG (blood sugar levels). Sugar is transported by insulin from the bloodstream into your cells; here it is stored or utilized for energy. Your body may not create enough insulin or can’t utilize the insulin it does make properly if you have diabetes.

Diabetes is also referred to as “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These phrases imply that someone does not have diabetes or has a milder form of the disease, yet diabetes affects everyone.


  • An autoimmune disease is Type 1 diabetes. The cells of immune system destroy the pancreas where insulin is made.
  • Diabetes Type 2 occurs when your body gets insulin resistant and sugar builds up in the blood
  • Prediabetes – When your blood sugar is greater than usual but not as high as that in type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes – During pregnancy, elevated blood sugar is a problem. This form of diabetes is caused by the placenta’s production of insulin-blocking substances.

Although it has a similar name, diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disease. It’s a distinct ailment in which your kidneys eliminate an excessive amount of your body fluid.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body’s ability to control and utilize sugar (glucose) as a fuel is impaired. Too much sugar circulates in the circulation as a result of this long-term (chronic) disease. High blood sugar levels can eventually cause problems with the circulatory, neurological, and immunological systems.

Although type 2 diabetes is more frequent in older individuals, the rise in the number of obese youngsters has resulted in an increase in type 2 diabetes occurrences among children.

Causes and Risk Factors

Primarily two concerned problems can be stated as;

  • Insulin resistance develops in muscle, fat, and liver cells. These cells don’t take up enough sugar because they don’t interact with insulin normally.
  • The pancreas is incapable of producing enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control.

Being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle are the key factors in the contribution of the disease.

Other risk factors include;

  • Weight – being overweight and or obese is one of the main risks.
  • Fat distribution – Fat storage mostly in the belly, rather than the hips and thighs, suggests a higher risk. If you’re a male with a waist circumference of more than 40 inches (101.6 cm) or a woman with a circumference of more than 35 inches, you’re more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (88.9 centimeters).
  • Inactivity – physical activity controls your weight. If not then being physically not active you may tend to increase your weight thus you will be at greater risk
  • Family history – the risk increases if you have a close family member with type 2 diabetes
  • Blood and lipid levels – Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the “good” cholesterol — and high levels of triglycerides are linked to an increased risk.
  • Age – as you grow older you are at a greater risk
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – associated with irregular menstrual cycle may increase the risk of diabetes
  • Darkened skin areas – this condition indicates insulin resistance


Signs and Symptoms

Common symptoms may include;

  • Often urination
  • Feeling of thirst
  • Feeling of hunger – even after eating
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Bruises/cuts that are slower in healing process
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Tingling
  • Pain, numbness in hands or feet
  • Itching around penis or vagina

Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes have many similarities, their causes are vastly different. And, in most cases, the therapy is also extremely different. Some people, particularly those newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, may experience symptoms that are similar to those of type 2 diabetes, which can be perplexing.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Typically, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. The average blood sugar level for the previous two to three months is determined by this blood test. The following is how the results are interpreted:

Below 5.7% considers normal.

5.7% to 6.4% is considered to be prediabetic.

6.5% or higher is considered to be diabetic.

Other tests include;

Random blood sugar test: Milligrams of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles of sugar per litre (mmol/L) of blood are used to measure blood sugar levels. A level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or greater, regardless of when you last ate, indicates diabetes.

Fasting blood sugar test: after an overnight fasting a blood sample is taken for test. The results are interpreted as:

It is normal to have a blood sugar level of less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).

Prediabetes is defined as a blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L).

Diabetes is diagnosed when blood sugar levels are 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or greater on two independent tests.

Oral glucose tolerance test: it is less common than other tests. You don’t need to fast over night or something, just need to drink a sugary liquid before the test.

Screening:  All individuals aged 45 and above should be screened for type 2 diabetes using diagnostic testing, according to the American Diabetes Association.


Check you sugar level more often and follow these following tips:

  • Eat at regular intervals
  • Eat high fiber foods and high carbohydrate foods
  • Eating fruits and vegetables will keep you sugar level steady and moderate
  • Control your weight
  • Keep your heart healthy
  • Exercise daily or do any physical activity
  • Avoid processed foods
  • Use oils such as canola oil or olive oil

In other cases, several medications might help such as;

  • Metformin
  • Sulfonylureas
  • sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

Insulin treatment may be required if your body is unable to produce enough insulin. It’s possible that you’ll just require a long-acting injection at night, or that you’ll need to take insulin many times a day.